Monday, November 25, 2013

CSI: That One Strand of Hair.........

CSI programs have been on TV for a number of years. Do you watch them and think: I'd like to do that!?

Remember, what you see on TV is a dramatized account of how crimes are solved. Many are never solved, and they all take much more than an hour to figure out. Results from tests may take quite awhile. There are many different people and agencies that must work together, and that does not always happen smoothly. Not every town has the ability to hire enough help, and there is considerable paperwork involved when investigating a crime. For more comparisons, see:

The definition of 'Forensic' as an adjective refers to evidence used in courts to determine the facts of a crime, and also scientific research that proves or disproves a theory. Forensics is the study of arguments and debate. It comes from the Latin word 'forum'. The word was first used about 1659.

There are a number of different careers you might choose in order to work at crime scenes or with evidence. Job titles vary by location, but three names for someone who works at a crime scene are: Forensic, Crime Scene, or Evidence Technologist.

                                        Evidence is numbered at the crime scene.

A Forensic Technologist typically has a Bachelor's Degree in Forensic Science. This person collects evidence such as fingerprints, hair, fibers, clothing, and blood. He might also take pictures of the crime scene. He may testify at a trial as to his findings.

Keep in mind that the title "Tech" doesn't necessarily mean the job requires only a Technical School certificate, although there are some which require an Associate of Science. Some 'Tech' jobs involve a 4 year degree. The term is short for 'technologist.'

                                Types of fibers, microscopic view

  • A Forensic Tech may specialize in fingerprint evidence.
                                 This car has been dusted for fingerprint evidence (what a mess!).

                    Here is a criminologist attempting to make a fingerprint match.

  • Ballistics Experts are always in demand, to determine how bullets were fired and from what type of gun.

                                   All the bullets pictured above have been fired.

 Showing the size of a bullet cartridge. This is likely a mock crime scene.

  • An Arson Investigator-Working closely with the fire department, this person would determine the origin and cause of a fire and whether it was deliberately set: What is the pattern of the burned area? Where did it start? Was it an accident, like an electrical fire, fallen cigarette, or a tipped candle, or did it start 'on purpose' with an accelerant, such as something like gasoline, lighter fluid, paint, or anything else that would catch fire quickly?

An arson investigator would be likely to have a 4 year degree plus added certification in Fire Science and Investigation. A major in Criminal Justice, Science, Engineering, or Chemistry would be an appropriate path towards ultimately being an arson investigator. Frequently, arson investigators have experience as firefighters, on a paid or voluntary basis, in order to become more familiar with fire investigation.

Here is a page describing fire investigation:

                                  How can you tell where this fire started?

You may be interested in doing DNA research as it pertains to crime:

A Criminalist would have a 4 year degree in Natural Science or Physical Science, with an emphasis on Chemistry as well.

                              A casting made of a shoe print found near a crime scene

                 A plane crash requires investigating: What happened, how, when, and why?

There are also criminologists who have a specialty such as Cyber Crime or Computer Crimes; a Digital Evidence Analyst, or a Computer Forensic Examiner. These crimes involve fraud or scams, identity theft, online stalking, pirating music, or 'simply' examining the hard drive of a computer to see what activity is on it. Demand for this specialty has been growing rapidly.

Here is the FBI site on Cyber Crimes:

All of these specialties can be studied after you obtain a degree in Criminology, Law, Law Enforcement, the Court System, Corrections, or Corrections Policy.

Crime scene investigators of most types will work with coroners or Pathologists (M.D.s) to determine the cause of death of a person when a crime is suspected.


Coursework for a Bachelor of Science degree in Criminology would include:
  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Anatomy & Physiology
  • Crime Scene Evidence
  • Crime Scene Law
  • Violent Crime Scene Investigation
  • Criminology Theory
  • Research Methods

You may also need to study photography and death investigation to add to your knowledge as you do your work. With new methods and technology becoming available all the time, you will need to continue your education throughout your career.

Be aware that working in this field means you may work any time or any shift during a 24 hour period, in any kind of weather, inside or outside, and sometimes in unpleasant or unsafe environments. You need to have good communications skills, be good at writing, have good critical thinking skills, have solid computer skills and work well with others, and it will be helpful if you are physically fit.

There are a number of schools in Minnesota that offer Forensic Science degrees-again, make sure the school is accredited in order to be sure it is accepted by law enforcement agencies:

Metro State offers a 4 year degree in Computer Forensics, Criminal Justice, Human Services with an emphasis on Corrections, and Law Enforcement as well as a Masters Degree in Criminal Justice:
 Hamline University offers a Bachelors in Criminal Justice; Brown College offers both an Associates and a Bachelors Degree in Criminal Justice as well.
Alexandria Tech offers both an Associates and a Bachelors Degree in Law Enforcement.
 Hibbing offers an Associates Degree in Law Enforcement; Inver Hills Community College offers an Associate Degrees in Law Enforcement, and in Criminal Justice.
Winona State offers Bachelors Degrees in Criminal Justice:
MCTC offers an Associates Degree in: Computer Forensics, Criminal Justice, Homeland Security, and Law Enforcement.

Bemidji State offers both an Associates and a Bachelors Degree in Criminal Justice.

Here is a link to the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension that may also give you some information on these careers:

Think about becoming a crime scene investigator. Maybe you can find the answers!

Monday, November 18, 2013


It was 50 years ago, on Friday, November 22, 1963, that President John Kennedy was killed as he rode in a motorcade through downtown Dallas, Texas.

  Before... The motorcade in Dallas: President & Mrs. Kennedy; 
    Governor & Mrs. John Connally of Texas are seated in front of them

                                   After...         JFK Lying in State

The president's body lay in state first at the White House in the East Room, then at the Capitol on November 24. Mourners were to be able file past the body and pay their respects till 9:00 p.m., but it was necessary to keep the room open all night long; in all, more than 250,000 people filed past President's Kennedy's casket.

                     Procession, front of the Capitol Building:
                Kennedy's two little children are on the far right of this picture.

                               Procession going down Pennsylvania Ave.

    Part of the funeral procession included Blackjack, the riderless horse:
 note the boots are in the stirrups backwards.

His family intended for his oldest brother, Joe, to run for President one day. When he died in World War 2, John or "Jack" was their next choice, although his brothers Ted and Robert (Bobby) also served in public offices.

John Kennedy served in the Navy during World War 2, and saved his crewmates after their boat was sunk. Read more about JFK and his boat, PT-109, at:

He began the Peace Corps in 1960, which is still active today.

                               Peace Corps volunteers work all over the world.

He supported our space program, vowing to land a man on the moon by the end of the 1960's, and indeed we accomplished that. Unfortunately, he didn't live to see it happen (what year was that???)

He worked to achieve civil rights for minorities, and increased the minimum wage of that time. He and his wife, Jackie, brought more culture into the White House with guest performances and artwork. Recognizing the White House as an important part of American history, Jackie supervised some restoration of it and brought back furniture from the early years of the White House that had been in storage. Here are some pictures:

JFK only served 1,063 days as the President. He was the youngest elected president, at age 43, and the first president born in the 20th century. He was extremely wealthy, so he donated his wages as president ($100,000 at the time) to charity.

Technology was much less advanced: there were no cell phones-reporters scrambled for a pay phone or some way to call in their information- TV cameras had to warm up before they were ready to use, and there was no internet; but  this event was one of the first to have non-stop television coverage. It included the announcement of the assassination, the arrival of the body in Washington, and the funeral, but also the murder of the suspect, Lee Oswald, as people watched on national TV.

There was a great deal of speculation as to whether there was a conspiracy involved in Kennedy's death, and the Warren Commission Report was highly controversial-many still don't believe the report is accurate. This was a topic that remained in the news for years afterwards.

What difference did his assassination make? Why does it have anything to do with us today?

In a strictly historical sense, it's rare to have a President assassinated, but we should also take note of what the world was like at that time. What do you know about the Cold War? Who was Nikita Khruschev? What is the Bay of Pigs? What did Kennedy do for the Civil Rights movement? Do you think he might have handled U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia differently than his successor, Lyndon Johnson?  How did his death permanently influence the mood of our country? Is his death the point at which we became less trusting of our government? Why?

Read about the Bay of Pigs here:  

And about the Vietnam War here: 

If you were around at the time Kennedy was assassinated and remember those days, be sure to talk to younger people about it. If you are a young person, ask a parent or grandparent what it was like.

Triogenius uncovered some  surprising coincidences between President Kennedy and President Abraham Lincoln. Did you know....?

Both of them were second children and were named for their grandfathers
Both had friends named Adlai E. Stevenson
Lincoln was elected to Congress in 1846. Kennedy was elected to Congress in 1946.
Lincoln was elected President in 1860. Kennedy was elected president in 1960.
Both of their names have 7 letters.
Both were over 6' tall.
Both of their Vice Presidents were named Johnson.
Lincoln's VP, Andrew Johnson, was born in 1808.
Lyndon Johnson, Kennedy's VP, was born in 1908.
Kennedy had a secretary named Evelyn Lincoln.
Kennedy was riding in a Lincoln (part of Ford automobiles)when he was shot; Lincoln was attending Ford's Theater.
Both were killed on a Friday.
Both were killed with their wives sitting next to them.
Both were in the company of another couple; both of the other men were also wounded.
Both assassins were killed before they could be brought to trial.
Lincoln's murderer killed him in a theater and was apprehended in a warehouse/shed; Kennedy's murderer killed him from a warehouse and was apprehended in a theater.
Both had sons who died while their fathers were in office.

You may also find it interesting to note that Clint Hill, the bodyguard for Jaqueline Kennedy, is a graduate of Concordia University.

Visit the the JFK National Historic Site  online at:

JFK was the 2nd president buried at Arlington Cemetery--see the Triogenius 5-20-2013 post.
JFK's Inaugural Speech including the words:                
              "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country."

We should not let our fears hold us back
 from pursuing our hopes.
               -John F. Kennedy
               35th President, United States of America

Monday, November 4, 2013

Digging Up Dirt: A Career as an Archaeologist

Do you like learning about history? Why not consider a career in Archaeology?

An Archaeologist studies  past cultures based on artifacts, or relics, left behind by people who died many years ago. He might discover tools used by the people in the area, cooking vessels, weapons, or furniture, or even coins. He might find items that have words on them that need to be deciphered.

                      You can uncover the stories of ancient people through knowledge of their languages.

                       In ancient times, people made pottery that was functional and beautiful.

Archaeology is practiced on several levels: you might be an Academic Archaeologist, or a professor of archaeology; that career requires a PhD, or Doctorate degree. A Project Archaeologist would  write a proposal asking permission to do a dig, supervise the dig, and then would write a report afterwards describing what was found at the site. Project Archaeologists usually hold a Masters Degree and sometimes a PhD.

2,000 terra cotta (baked clay)warriors unearthed by farmers near Beijing, China. Learn more about them at:

A Field Archaeologist would be one of many workers sifting through soil and excavating at a dig. This person would likely need a Bachelor of Science degree and would have less authority.

                           Ashkelon --an ancient city uncovered in Israel.

A Museum Archaeologist would receive artifacts to study in a museum, would catalog them into the collection, and be in charge of keeping them secure. This person would likely need a Masters degree as well.

   This is the bottom of a boat, uncovered near London before they hosted the Olympics in 2012.

To work in this field (!) you should be adaptable, tolerate different climates well, write well, enjoy collaborating with others, and have a sincere respect for other cultures. It is likely that you would travel to new places to participate in digs, whether in other states or on the other side of the world, so you would have to enjoy travel.

You may find one particular kind of relic more interesting and specialize in that: Do you like to be the one that 'dates' an object? Do you prefer working with metals? What about specific kinds of pottery? Tools? Particular cultures of people? Burial grounds and customs?

You can also work for the National Park Service, which preserves sites in the U.S: .

               You may work with Archaeological Anthropologists when discovering human remains.

This is Machu Pichu in Peru. Have you ever heard of it?
Check it out:

You might discover a treasure trove like these silver objects, found stashed in the bottom of a Viking ship in Sweden:
Mixed in this pile are armbands and coins; Learn more about it at:
You can even 'dig' under the ocean; here are divers
 exploring a shipwreck:

Ancient ruins are present all over the world, and you can discover settlements, ancient burial grounds, Native American villages, even work with previously undiscovered graveyards, right here in the U.S. 

                                                        Assorted Native American objects

                            Mesa Verda National Park, Colorado: a Cliff Palace

                         This is an old cemetery in Philadelphia: What could be learned here?

Archaeologists have been working at the site of the Jamestown settlement for some time, discovering how they lived, what they wore, what tools and cookware they used. Jamestown was the first permanent colony or settlement in Virginia.

Look at the stunning silver coffee pots and chocolate servers:

Here is a longer video featuring several found objects: 

How can you get started exploring the idea of Archaeology as a career?

 Find your State Archaeological Society: Here is Minnesota's Society:

      A student showing pottery shards to her professor. They hope to carbon-date these pieces.
Here is an organization that sponsors volunteer archaeologists: The name is 'Passport In Time' or 'PIT.'
Here is a site that discusses archaeology as well:

And check out the Archaeological Institute of America:

Think about it: a career spent uncovering and solving ancient mysteries. Interested?

Little metal books about the size of a credit card, found recently Jordan, dated to about 1 A.D.